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  • Back to book  |  Preface |  Table of Contents |  Errata  |  CD  |  Resources for Instructors

    Analog and Digital Communication Systems

    Table of Contents

     

     

    PREFACE, ix

     

    1. INTRODUCTION

    Preview, 1

    1.1. The Need to Communicate - History, 2

    1.2. The Environment, 3

    1.3. Types of Signals, 15

        1.3.1. Analog Continuous, 15

        1.3.2. Analog Sampled, 16

        1.3.3. Digital Signal, 16

    1.4. Elements of a Communication System, 17

    1.5. Sampling, 19

        1.5.1. Errors in Sampling, 27

    1.6. A/D and D/A Conversion, 34

        1.6.1. Quantizers, 37

    1.7. Shannon's Channel Capacity Theorem, 49

    Problems, 56

    2. BASEBAND TRANSMISSION

    Preview, 62

    2.1. Analog Baseband, 63

    2.2. Discrete Baseband, 64

        2.2.1. Pulse Amplitude Modulation, 64

        2.2.2. Time Division Multiplexing, 69

        2.2.3. Intersymbol Interference and Crosstalk, 73

        2.2.4. Pulse Width Modulation, 77

        2.2.5. Pulse Position Modulation, 81

    2.3. Digital Baseband, 82

        2.3.1. Signal Formats, 82

        2.3.2. Pulse Code Modulation (PCM), 95

        2.3.3. M-ary Baseband, 104

        2.3.4. Time Division Multiplexing, 105

        2.3.5. Delta Modulation, 106

        2.3.6. Other A/D Conversion Techniques, 111

    2.4. Receivers, 115

        2.4.1. Analog Baseband Reception, 116

        2.4.2. Discrete Baseband Reception, 116

        2.4.3. Digital Baseband Reception, 118

        2.4.4 Intersymbol Interference Revisited, 138

    2.5. Performance, 145

        2.5.1. Analog Baseband, 145

        2.5.2. Discrete Baseband, 149

        2.5.3. Digital Baseband, 152

    2.6 Applications, 187

        2.6.1. Telephone - Local Loop, 187

        2.6.2. Closed-Circuit Television, 188

        2.6.3. Digital Recording - CDs, 194

    Problems, 198

    3. AMPLITUDE MODULATION

    Preview, 214

    3.1. Concept of Modulation, 215

    3.2. Amplitude Modulation, 217

        3.2.1. Double Sideband Suppressed Carrier, 217

        3.2.2. Double Sideband Transmitted Carrier, 223

        3.2.3. Single Sideband, 230

        3.2.4. Vestigial Sideband (VSB), 231

        3.2.5. ASK and MASK, 233

    3.3. Modulators, 236

        3.3.1. Double Sideband, 236

        3.3.2. Single Sideband Modulators, 247

        3.3.3. Vestigial Sideband (VSB), 250

        3.3.4. Digital ASK Modulators, 251

    3.4. Demodulators, 253

        3.4.1. Coherent Demodulation, 253

        3.4.2. Carrier Recovery in AMTC, 264

        3.4.3. Incoherent Demodulation, 266

        3.4.4. IC Modulators and Demodulators, 275

    3.5. Performance, 276

    3.5.1. Coherent Detection, 277

    3.5.2. Incoherent Detection, 288

    3.6. Design Considerations, 295

        3.6.1. Analog Design Tradeoffs, 296

        3.6.2. Digital Design Tradeoffs, 297

        3.6.3. Digital Communication Design Requirements, 299

    3.7. Applications, 302

        3.7.1. Broadcast AM, 302

        3.7.2. Television, 307

        3.7.3. Cellular Telephone, 310

    Problems, 313

    4. FREQUENCY MODULATION

    Preview, 327

    4.1. Frequency Modulation, 328

        4.1.1. Instantaneous Frequency, 328

        4.1.2. Narrowband FM, 330

        4.1.3. Wideband FM, 335

        4.1.4. Frequency Shift Keying (FSK), 346

        4.1.5. MFSK, 349

    4.2. Modulators, 350

        4.2.1. Analog Modulators, 350

        4.2.2. Digital (FSK) Modulators, 354

    4.3. Demodulators, 356

        4.3.1. Analog Demodulators, 356

        4.3.2. Digital Demodulators, 367

    4.4. Performance, 369

        4.4.1. Analog, 369

        4.4.2. Digital, 378

    4.5. Applications, 387

        4.5.1. Broadcast FM and FM Stereo, 387

        4.5.2. MODEMS, 391

        4.5.3. Dual-Tone Multifrequency (DTMF) Dialing, 394

    Problems, 395

    5. PHASE MODULATION

    Preview, 404

    5.1. Analog Phase Modulation, 404

        5.1.1. Narrowband PM, 405

        5.1.2. Wideband PM, 407

    5.2. Digital Phase Modulation, 412

        5.2.1. PSK, 412

        5.2.2. MPSK, 417

        5.2.3. DPSK, 421

    5.3. Modulators, 422

        5.3.1. Analog, 422

        5.3.2. Digital, 424

    5.4. Demodulators, 426

        5.4.1. Analog, 426

        5.4.2. Digital, 426

    5.5. Performance, 434

        5.5.1. Analog, 434

        5.5.2. Digital, 438

    5.6. Applications, 446    

        5.6.1. MODEMS, 446

    Problems, 448

     

    6. HYBRID SYSTEMS

    Preview, 455

    6.1. Analog, 455

        6.1.1. QAM, 455

        6.1.2. AM Stereo, 458

    6.2. Digital, 463

        6.2.1. Design Tradeoffs, 463

        6.2.2. QAM, 464

    6.3. MODEMS, 469

    Problems, 470

    APPENDIX A: FOURIER ANALYSIS

    A.1. Fourier Series, 471

    A.2. The Fourier Transform, 474

    A.3. Singularity Functions, 477

    A.4. Convolution, 482

    A.4.1. Parsevalís Theorem, 485

    A.5. Properties of the Fourier Transform, 486

    A.5.1. Real/Imaginary-Even/Odd, 486

    A.5.2. Time Shift, 487

    A.5.3. Frequency Shift, 488

    A.5.4. Linearity, 488

    A.5.5. Modulation Theorem, 488

    A.6. Periodic Functions, 489

    APPENDIX B: LINEAR SYSTEMS

    B.1. The System Function, 493

    B.2. Filters, 496

    B.2.1. Ideal Lowpass Filter, 497

    B.2.2. Ideal Bandpass filter, 499

    B.3. Practical Filters, 501

    B.3.1. Lowpass Filter, 501

    B.3.2. Bandpass Filter, 506

    B.4. Active Filters, 508

    B.5. Time Bandwidth Product, 510

    APPENDIX C: PROBABILITY AND NOISE

    C.1. Basic Elements of Probability Theory, 514

    C.1.1. Probability, 514

    C.1.2. Conditional Probabilities, 516

    C.1.3. Random Variables, 518

    C.1.4. Probability Density Function, 520

    C.1.5. Expected Values, 522

    C.1.6. Function of a Random Variable, 525

    C.2. Frequently Encountered Density Functions, 528

    C.2.1. Gaussian Random Variables, 528

    C.2.2. Rayleigh Density Function, 533

    C.2.3. Exponential Random Variables, 535

    C.2.4. The Ricean Density Function, 535

    C.3. Random Processes, 536

    C.4. White Noise, 546

    C.5. Narrowband Noise, 547

    C.6. Matched Filter, 553

    APPENDIX D: TABLE OF FOURIER TRANSFORMS, 559

    APPENDIX E: Q FUNCTION AND ERROR FUNCTION, 561

    APPENDIX F: SIMULATION SOFTWARE, 564

    APPENDIX G: REFERENCES, 566

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